Pengaruh Pretreatment Iradiasi Microwave pada Hidrolisis Kitosan dengan Enzim Cellulase

Nur Rokhati, Bambang Pramudono, Mohammad Sulchan, Anggara Eka Permana, Suryo Tetuko

Abstract


Kitosan merupakan polimer alam yang diperoleh dari proses deasetilasi kitin yang terkandung di dalam cangkang binatang invertebrata terutama crustacea seperti udang dan rajungan. Karena sifatnya yang biocompatible, biodegradable, bioaktivitas, dan tidak beracun, kitosan telah digunakan secara luas dalam berbagai bidang seperti pangan, nutrisi, farmasi, medis, dan pertanian. Kitosan memiliki berat molekul yang tinggi, viskositas tinggi, dan kelarutan di dalam air yang rendah, sehingga akan menghambat aplikasinya. Salah satu metode yang umum dilakukan untuk menurunkan berat molekul kitosan adalah hidrolisis enzimatis. Kelemahan dari metode ini adalah laju reaksi yang lambat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pretreatment iradiasi microwave pada hidrolisis enzimatis kitosan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pretreatment iradiasi microwave dapat meningkatkan laju penurunan berat molekul dan viskositas larutan kitosan. Hidrolisis kitosan dengan pretreatment iradiasi microwave pada power 120 watt selama 9 menit dapat meningkatkan kelarutan kitosan dalam air dari 0,02% menjadi 0,26% (berat/volume). Analisis FTIR menunjukkan bahwa struktur kimia produk hidrolisis mirip dengan kitosan awal.

Chitosan is a natural polymer obtained from the deacetylation of chitin contained in shells of invertebrates, especially crustaceans such as shrimp and crab. Because it is biocompatible, biodegradable, bioactivity, and non-toxic, chitosan has been widely used in various fields such as food, nutritional, pharmaceutical, medical, and agriculture. Chitosan has a high molecular weight, high viscosity, and solubility in water is low, so it will hamper application. One common method to lower the molecular weight of chitosan is the enzymatic hydrolysis. The disadvantage of this method is the reaction rate is slow. This study aims to assess the microwave irradiation pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan. The results showed that pretreatment microwave irradiation can increase the rate of decrease in molecular weight and viscosity of chitosan solution. Pretreatment of chitosan hydrolysis with microwave irradiation at 120 watts power for 9 minutes can increase the solubility of chitosan in water from 0,02% to 0,26% (weight / volume). FTIR analysis showed that the hydrolysis products of the chemical structure is similar to the initial chitosan.



Keywords


pretreatment; microwave; kitosan; hidrolisis; cellulase

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17728/jatp.212

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