D A Sari, Hadiyanto Hadiyanto


Penyimpanan bahan makanan bertujuan mencegah pembusukan makanan sehingga shelf life cukup lama, kualitasnya tetap terjaga, dan ketersediaannya berada di sepanjang waktu. Metode penyimpanan dilakukan mulai dari bahan makanan segar (hasil panen), pengolahan, pemrosesan, pengemasan hingga pendistribusian produk. Berdasarkan ketahanannya, makanan terbagi atas makanan tahan lama, semi-tahan lama, dan tidak tahan lama. Beberapa teknologi penyimpanan makanan yaitu penggunaan bahan kimia dan mikroba, pengkontrolan kandungan air, struktur makanan, serta penggunaan panas dan energi, maupun teknologi kombinasi. Penyimpanan makanan tidak tahan lama dapat dilakukan di dalam freezer dikemas secara vakum (ikan dan daging), kulkas (susu), dan iradiasi gamma terhadap potongan sayuran untuk menurunkan jumlah E. coli. Lalu, penyimpanan makanan semi-tahan lama melalui pelapisan kitosan (jambu) menunda kematangan, metode hibrid dan pengeringan tepung jagung, dan kombinasi ethanol emitter dengan penyerap oksigen untuk mengawetkan potongan roti gandum. Sedangkan, penyimpanan makanan tahan lama juga menggunakan iradiasi gamma terhadap kacang mende dan metode pulsed electric mereduksi mikroba pada rempah-rempah.


iradiasi; freezer; kitosan; pulsed electric; shelf life

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